The findings of the study are primarily concerned with the environmental impact of a North Sea Offshore Grid. However, in its executive summary the study concludes (https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/c5f90ce5-7276-11e7-b2f2-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-33576265) that a hub approach will be the only way forward to develop the grid. According to the study, key hub points should be put into place upfront by the public, so that any investor would only be required to invest in the connection to the hub, an approach already partly realised in the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium, although those hubs are being directly connected to the respective national shore.
Particularly the scope of the study is interesting, given that a related project, the so-called North Sea Offshore Grid (North Seas Countries Offshore Grid Initiative (NSCOGI)) included Norway, whereas Norway is not listed as a country under investigation in the current study. Moreover, the study particularly focusses on the UK and its connection with both the Irish Seas and the North Sea, but the UK is about to leave the European Union.